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Caffeine also stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system.Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
There is some evidence that the hormonal changes during pregnancy slow the metabolic clearance of caffeine from the system, causing a given dose to have longer-lasting effects (as long as 15 hours in the third trimester).
Some people experience insomnia or sleep disruption if they consume caffeine, especially during the evening hours, but others show little disturbance.
Evidence of a risk during pregnancy is equivocal; some authorities recommend that pregnant women limit consumption to the equivalent of two cups of coffee per day or less.
Caffeine is classified by the US Food and Drug Administration as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS).
Toxic doses, over 10 grams per day for an adult, are much higher than typical doses of under 500 milligrams per day.
Beverages containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance.
To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by steeping the plant product in water, a process called infusion.It can treat and prevent the premature infant breathing disorders bronchopulmonary dysplasia of prematurity and apnea of prematurity.Caffeine citrate is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.This is a conservative suggestion since older and heavier weight adolescents may be able to consume adult doses of caffeine without suffering adverse effects.The UK Food Standards Agency has recommended that pregnant women should limit their caffeine intake, out of prudence, to less than 200 mg of caffeine a day – the equivalent of two cups of instant coffee, or one and a half to two cups of fresh coffee.A cup of coffee contains 80–175 mg of caffeine, depending on what "bean" (seed) is used and how it is prepared (e.g., drip, percolation, or espresso).